中国首例ICO代投被公安立案诈骗,参与人员已踩红线,监管开始严清ICO

ICO乱象,监管真的来了!

据《法制周末》新闻报道,某投资人经代投人参与英雄链项目。这个主打区块链博彩项目的获利方式是,先由项目方发起代币众筹,召集投资人;众筹完成后,项目在数字资产交易平台(二级市场)上线交易,使投资人实现“低买高卖”获利。

英雄链HEC上线后,代币价格一路走低,投资人所持代币市值蒸发了90%,看着不断减少的本余额,投资人决定报案。

众多投资人纷纷退币维权,原因不仅在于英雄链代币价格的暴跌,更是指向英雄链“项目造假”、项目代投人涉嫌集资诈骗、存在其他公司幕后“操盘”等。

在投资人提交了相关证据并与公安局多次沟通,以及公安局内部连番多次讨论后,3月14日,县公安局以诈骗予以立案。

北京大成律师事务所合伙人,肖锋透露,今日南方某区县公安机关,对一起ICO投涉案进行立案,初步认定涉嫌罪名为诈骗罪。

新浪财经也针对此事件进行了报道:

中国首例ICO代投被公安立案诈骗,参与人员已踩红线,监管开始严清ICO

那么什么是ICO代投?

这不得不让人联想到“九四事件”,9月4日之前,项目代币发行火热,一个小范围的创新项目众筹方式,发展到全民疯狂,到处是各种项目借区块链的名义发行代币进行筹资,乱象丛生,由于缺乏相应的规范和监管,不乏各种骗钱跑路事件的发生,传销币种也是屡见不鲜,此种情况下,9月4日,央行红头文件下达。

中国首例ICO代投被公安立案诈骗,参与人员已踩红线,监管开始严清ICO

中国首例ICO代投被公安立案诈骗,参与人员已踩红线,监管开始严清ICO

而几个月之后,现在的私募代投之风不亚于9月4日之前的代币发行,各种不靠谱的项目,跑路事件也频频出现,而三位大佬的发声,更是将私募代投事件公之于众,推向极致。看来,历史也许又要重演,监管是必然的,但具体监管如何还得等待官方消息的公布。

就是9.4之后,国内不允许ICO项目的存在,所以很多ICO项目成为了海外项目,不能在国内进行私募或者众筹。所以这个时候呢,就需要一个经手人,可以说是“买办”,也就是代投人。收你的币,帮你投某个项目。

最近的ICO破发潮导致了类似事件频生,以前人们觉得这并不算犯罪,顶多犯了点规。但是首例判决出来了,的确可以被判为诈骗罪。

ICO代投代办的坑

ICO近期来风风火火,大家都想投到对的目标从而搭上起飞的航班。然而并不是所有项目都能够简单直投的,尤其是国外的好项目,除了太多外文单词理解不易外,甚至还有的会设立些不易达到的门坎。

因此很多人就会转向寻找代投、代办,借助他们的服务达成目标。

然而有需求的人多了,想从中赚黑心钱的人自然也会涌入,毕竟这是一个缺乏监管的市场,目前由于投资加密货币失利或被诈欺,从而成功求偿的案例还一个都没有,大家只能在过程中擦亮眼睛,多加小心谨慎。

从首例ICO立案后,众说纷纭的代投业务被推上了风口浪尖。因为新兴产业缺乏法律的约束,监管异常艰难。而大部分投资人对这方面所知甚少。

从代币发行到私募代投,不知道你有没有注意到,它们都是开始小范围然后发展壮大,但是由于没有规定与监管,于是乱象丛生、骗子横行。我们承认,区块链行业是一个创新行业,有许多有志之士在专心做项目用区块链技术造福社会;但同时也不得不承认,在暴利和缺乏良好管控机制的状态下,人性的脆弱和人心的叵测,一个发展了几十年的互联网世界,骗子都随处可见,更别说一个刚刚开始的区块链行业;我们更不得不承认,民众并非都是智者,大部分的投资者没有受过什么专业的训练,没有什么专业的知识,而在利益的诱惑下又极易被人所蛊。

英雄链ICO代投的法律分析

1、ICO出口转内销

自2017年9月4日之后,ICO作为非法融资手段已被我国行政机关“否定评价”,一时间纷纷退币,还好当时的国际价格坚挺,退币群众并未有过多情绪。当然,也有坚持不退币看好项目的“忠粉”,有些项目还是采取私募等方式让渡了一部分“股权”。

然而,有些股权或使用权或收益权的表现形式,还是“币”,如果单纯从名称上讲,币可以是游戏币可以是法币,可以表达很多含义,但是,一旦到海外交易所上市,coins&tokens的性质就变了,成了一种价格可被炒作的金融产品。

金融产品,即便是在海外合法合规的产品,进入中国市场也是需要我国行政机关的相应批文。如果没有,结合现在严厉形势,可能会面临法律制裁。

2 一群“会议营销专家”

发币项目方为了规避法律,在境内采取了“私募方式”,读者可以理解为批发商,从某区块链项目中,由N个公司或有实力的自然人先行低价购入部分代币,然后,等代币进入交易所流通,这些公司和自然人再把币卖给国内普通炒家(或美化成“代为投资”)。

案例:

经查,本案系窝案,涉及人员较多,其中主要嫌疑人两名(一名已潜逃至东南亚国家),嫌疑人谎称自己有某区块链项目的“私募”份额,向投资人宣传能够代投或受让份额,后发展销售层级达十余层,涉及人数众多,据投资人收集的电子数据证明嫌疑人有无中生有、虚假承诺等问题,投资人损失近亿。

目前,投资人已在全国各地报案,南方某区县率先立案,罪名为:涉嫌诈骗罪。这种案件,据我们办案经验,初期会在基层司法机关办理,后期可能会被市公安局、市检察院提上来作为新型涉众案件严办。也许会在全国掀起一阵打击ICO代投行为的行动,肃清市场。

那么,如果“私募”份额是真的,是否还有法律风险呢?为了拓展销路,一些公司和自然人常常夸大项目情况,甚至把一些“空气币”描绘成“天使币”,在项目白皮书并没有承诺某些成果的时候,杜撰阶段性成果诱骗更多投资人进场。这就也可能触犯我国刑法第266条诈骗罪、第225条非法经营罪。

但是,司法实践中“民事欺诈”与“刑事诈骗”的界分并不清晰。

因此,这些协助出口转内销,又从中移花接木,口若悬河的人或公司是否构成犯罪,要结合客观证据,谨慎认定。

3、潜在风险,“传销”问题

在国内进行分销coins的过程,也需要费一番思量,为了尽快打开销路,获得更多投资人,不少企业通过QQ群、微信群进行广泛传播,采取的是“人传人”的思路。

也就是说,制定一个传递激励机制,让A作为公司员工销售给B消费者,则A获得提成若干,如果B再销售给C消费者,A与B都能获得提成若干。根据我国法律规定,这涉嫌传销,系非法。

如果在传销组织中,是组织者、领导者,甚至是其中的讲师,那么,可能会面临刑法第224条之一组织领导传销罪。这个罪名适用比较广泛,多用于打击新型涉众型案件等。

文章转自布衣生活

 

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